About the Kidneys
The kidneys are a pair of bean-shaped organs located in the abdomen toward the back, one on each side of the spine. They perform many functions vital to life:
- Filter the blood and eliminate waste products
- Balance electrolyte levels in the body
- Control blood pressure
- Stimulate the production of red blood cells
- Make hormones that keep bones strong
However, various conditions and factors can damage the kidneys and cause them to fail. The two most common causes of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and kidney failure are diabetes mellitus and hypertension.
These two conditions, especially if not properly treated and controlled, long-term causes progressive and permanent damage to the millions of nephrons, the filtering mechanism of the kidneys.
The kidneys and our body are remarkable in its ability to compensate for problems in the loss of kidney function. That is why chronic kidney disease may progress without symptoms for a long time until only very minimal kidney function is left.
About Kidney Failure
When the kidneys fail, harmful wastes build up in the body, blood pressure may rise, and the body may retain excess fluid and not make enough red blood cells. As kidney function continues to decrease over time, symptoms may develop related to the various functions of kidneys that prominently get affected: inability to eliminate various waste products from the body, inability to regulate water and electrolyte balances, inability to produce hormone that promotes red blood cell production. These symptoms may include: lethargy, easy fatigability, and weakness, lost of appetite, shortness of breath, and edema or generalized swelling among others.
Rising creatinine, urea levels, other nitrogenous waste products and toxins in the blood, is known as uremia, literally meaning “urine in blood.” Uremia can affect and damage other bodily organ and functions such as the brain, heart, lungs, muscles among other organs and body systems.
Once CKD has progressed into kidney failure or end-stage kidney disease or end-stage renal disease or stage 5 CKD, the only treatment option is renal replacement therapy. Kidney function can be replaced either by dialysis or kidney transplantation.
The decision to start renal replacement therapy is based on a careful assessment by the doctor of the patient’s kidney function, overall health condition, including nutritional status, symptoms, and quality of life. The patient’s personal preferences and other factors are also considered.
Dialysis is a procedure that utilizes a filtering mechanism to cleanse the body of various waste products, excess water, excess electrolytes and minerals. There are two major types of dialysis: hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis.
Kidney transplantation involves surgically transplanting a viable kidney sourced either from a living donor or a deceased donor. Asian Hospital and Medical Center (AHMC) offers these renal replacement therapies: hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis and expertise in kidney transplantation. AHMC offers a broad range of dialysis techniques and treatment modalities for hemodialysis: CRRT, SLEDD, HDF etc.; peritoneal dialysis modalities: CAPD, automated or cycler assisted PD etc.; either as inpatient and outpatient including follow-up care for patients with CKD and end-stage kidney disease.
Types of Dialysis
Generally, dialysis treatment is initiated once CKD has reached the end-stage or stage 5. Dialysis therapy is not a treatment that will cure or improve the kidney function, rather it is a procedure that takes over the filtering function of the non-functioning kidneys. It utilizes a filtering mechanism or system to cleanse the body of waste products, excess water, electrolytes and minerals among other substances.
There are two major types of dialysis:
Hemodialysis and Peritoneal dialysis
Hemodialysis involves the use of a machine that will pump blood out of body circulation into a closed circuit of tubing flowing into a filter or dialyzer and back into the systemic blood circulation of the body. It is in the dialyzer where the filtration of blood and removal of waste products, excess water, electrolytes, minerals and other unwanted substances occur.
Hemodialysis is usually performed at a dialysis center two or three times per week; a dialysis session typically takes 3 to 4 hours or as maybe ordered by the doctor.
Peritoneal dialysis utilizes the patient’s abdomen – the peritoneum lining the inside of abdomen, as the filtering mechanism. Our body’s peritoneum has a vast network of capillaries (small blood vessels) in its semi-permeable membrane where potential exchange of substances can occur through a process called osmosis and diffusion. This exchange is facilitated via infusion of a dialysate solution into the abdomen via a peritoneal catheter; the dialysate solution serves to attract the movement of various waste products, excess water, electrolytes, minerals and other unwanted substances into the abdominal cavity and thence drain out of the body through the same peritoneal catheter.
Peritoneal dialysis (PD) exchange is performed either manually or automated by use of a machine (cycler-machine). Either way, the process involves infusion of a prescribed amount and percentage-strength of dialysis solution into the abdomen, followed by prescribed dwelling time, the amount of time it will be allowed to settle in the abdomen before it is drained out. There is wide variation in the number and frequency of exchanges that a patient may require depending upon the individual characteristics and clinical need.
Asian Hospital and Medical Center (AHMC) provides inpatient and outpatient dialysis, and follow-up care for patients with end-stage kidney disease. AHMC offers a broad range of treatment modalities including hemodialysis and continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis.
There are 20 dialysis machine with 16 available at the HD Center and 4 dedicated at the critical care units.
Telephone no: 771-9000 loc. 8312 or 8313
Service hours during 6 am – 10 pm on Mon-Sat (3 times)
24 hour service on Emergency cases